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签证中的14个敏感专业

信息来源:互联网作者:转载发布时间:2009-10-21点击数:

They are the following:1. CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS: Technologies associated with warhead and other large caliber projectil

They are the following:
1. CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS: Technologies associated with
warhead and other large caliber projectiles, reactive armor and
warhead defeat systems, fusing, and arming systems.
2. NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY: This section covers technologies
associated with the production and use of nuclear material for both
peaceful and military applications. Included are technologies for
enrichment of fissile material, for reprocessing irradiated nuclear
fuel to recover produced platinum, production of heavy water for
moderator material, plutonium and tritium handling, as well as
certain associated technologies related to high energy physics. It
includes research and poser reactors, breeder and production
reactors, fissile or special nuclear materials; uranium enrichment,
including gaseous diffusion, centrifuge, aerodynamics, chemical,
electromagnetic isotopic separation (EMIS) laser, isotopic
separation (LIS); spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium, mixed oxide
nuclear research, inertial confinement fusion (ICF), magnetic
confinement fusion, plasma, nuclear fuel fabrication including
mixed oxide (uranium-plutonium) fuels (MOX), heavy water
production, tritium production and sue, electromagnetic pulse
(EMP); hardening technology.
3. MISSILE/MISSILE TECHNOLOGY: Technologies associated
with air vehicles and unnned [?] missile systems. The technology
needed to develop a satellite launch vehicle is virtually identical to
that needed to build a ballistic missile. Technologies include
rocket systems, ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles and
sounding rockets and unmanned air equipment and reentry vehicles.
4. AIRCRAFT AND MISSILE PROPULSION AND VEHICULAR
SYSTEMS: The propulsion technologies included are associated
with near-earth super and hypersonic flight propulsion systems for
aircraft and missiles. Many of these technologies are dual use.
Technologies include liquid and solid rocket propulsion systems;
missile propulsion and systems integration; individual rocket states
or staging/separation mechanism; aerospace thermal and high-
performance structures; propulsion systems test facilities.
5. NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE CONTROL: These capabilities
directly determine the delivery accuracy and lethality of both
unguided and guided weapons. The long-term costs to design,
build and apply these technologies have been a limiting proliferation
factor. Technologies include those associated with internal
navigation systems, tracking and terminal homing devices;
accelerometers, vehicle and flight control systems.
6. CHEMICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING: Of
specific concern is the ability to develop, produce, and disseminate
toxic chemicals, biological and toxin agents. The technologies
that could be applied to produce chemical and biological agents
are used widely by civilian research laboratories and industry;
these technologies are relatively common in many countries.
Advanced biotechnology has the potential to support biological
weapons research. Look for technologies associated with
bacteriology (especially pathogenic), mutagens, mycology,
neurotoxins, reconbiant technology, toxins, venoms, virology,
precursor chemicals, toxicological research, chemical production equipmen
t.
7. REMOTE IMAGING AND RECONNAISSANCE: Remote sensing
technologies are inherently dual-use; technologies can be used for
civilian imagery projects or for military reconnaissance efforts.
Drones and remotely piloted vehicles enhance reconnaissance
abilities. These are technologies associated with remote sensing
satellites; imagery systems; high resolution cameras and optics;
unnned [?] air vehicles; remotely-piloted vehicles, drones.
8. ADVANCED COMPUTER/MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY:
Advance computers and software play a useful (but not necessarily
critical) role in the development and deployment of missiles and
missile systems, and in the development and production of nuclear
weapons. Advance computer capabilities are also used in over-the-
horizon targeting, airborne early warning targeting, electronic
countermeasures (ECM) processors. These technologies are
associated with supercomputing, hybrid computing; speech
processing/recognition systems; neural networks; data fusion;
quantum wells, resonant tunneling; superconductivity; advance
optoeletronics, acoustic wave devices, superconducting electron
devices, flash discharge type x-ray systems; frequency
synthesizers; microcomputer compensated crystal oscillators.
9. MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY: The metallic, ceramic, and
composite materials are primarily related to structural functions in
aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, undersea vehicles, and propulsion
devices. Polymers provide seals and sealants for containment of
identified fluids and lubricants for various vehicles and devices.
Selected specialty materials provide critical capabilities that exploit
electromagnetic absorption, magnetic, or superconductivity
characteristics.. These technologies are associated with advance
metals and alloys; non-composite ceramic materials, ceramic,
cermet, organic and carbon materials; polymeric materials;
synthetic fluids; hot isostatic densifications; intermetallic;
organometals; liquid and solid lubricant; magnetic metals and
superconductive conductors.
10. INFORMATION SECURITY: Technologies associated with
cryptography and cryptographic systems to ensure secrecy for
communications, video, data and related software.
11. LASERS AND DIRECTED ENERGY SYSTEMS
TECHNOLOGY: Lasers have critical military applications,
including incorporation in guided ordnance such as laser guided
bombs and ranging devices. Directed energy technologies are
used to generate electromagnetic radiation or particle beams and
to project that energy on a specific target. Kinetic energy
technologies are those used to impart a high velocity to a mass
and direct it to a target. Directed energy and kinetic energy
technologies have potential utility in countering missiles and other
applications. Look for technologies associated with atomic vapor
laser isotope separation (AVLIS), molecular laser isotope
separation (MLIS); high energy lasers (HEL), low energy lasers
(LEL), semiconductor lasers, free electron lasers , directed energy
(DE), kinetic energy (KE) systems, particle beam, beam rider,
electromagnetic guns, optoelectronics, optical tracking, high
energy density, high-speed pulse generation, pulsed power,
hypersonic/hypervelocity, magnetohydronynamics.
12. SENSORS AND SENSOR TECHNOLOGY: Sensors provide
real-time information and data; the side with superior sensors has a
considerable advantage. Marina acoustics is critical in anti-
submarine warfare; gravity meters are essential for missile launch
calibration. Look for technologies associated with marine
 

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